Notes on the two vocal gendhing and on their revision
by Suraji


Gendhing ‘Budheng-Budheng’ laras pelog pathet nem

In the book of Wedhapradangga (chronicle of Gotek), volume II, compiled by Raden Ngabehi Pradjapangrawit, it is stated that gendhing ‘Budheng-Budheng’ was composed during the reign of Paku Buwono IV (1788-1820) by Kanjeng Sasradiningrat. The significance of the title is rather unclear. The word ‘budheng’ in the dictionaries is translated as: ‘dull’, ‘dull-witted’ (but also ‘black monkey’).
With regard to the gendhing, I recall a story I heard from Bapak Mloyowidodo: the Author of the gendhing is supposed to be inspired by a Dutch woman who is not particularly beautiful but has special attractions coming from unusual features. Such features are hinted at in the andhegan text, which opens with a likely reference to the husband of the lady.
In a classical klenengan performance, gendhing ‘Budheng-Budheng’ is usually played during the daytime, using kendhang ciblon irama wilet. This gendhing has a special sindhenan part known as ‘sindhenan arum-arum’. According to Pradjapangrawit, the often repeated words ‘arum arum’reflect and emphasize the mood of the gendhing, which when performed has a fragrant (arum) feel.

The sindhenan for classical gendhings, from the merong to the inggah, are normally sung by a single pesindhen using a text of wangsalan with a free rhythmic style (with the exception of gendhings Bedhayan and Srimpen). Other texts are rarely used (except in the case of gendhings which are specially composed with a gerongan text of Kinanthi or Asmarandana metres). The melody of sindhenan wangsalan in general follows the melody of the rebab, based on the seleh notes of the gendhing. However, in the case of gendhing Bedhayan and Srimpen, the seleh of the vocal melody does not always follow the melodic line of the rebab or the particular pitch (high or low register) of the seleh notes in the gendhing. Sometimes, the seleh note for the balungan may be in the lower register while the sindhenan uses the high register, or vice-versa.

With reference to the above guidelines that rule the general treatment of vocal gendhings – and following a suggestion by the producer of this CD – I attempted to compose a sindhenan part for gendhing ‘Budheng-Budheng’ using three pesindhen who would each sing a different sindhenan melody. At times, the pesindhen sing a different melody at the beginning of a phrase but end on the same seleh note, while on other occasions the melody is different and the seleh note is also different. The working out of the musical solutions was based on my own personal experience as a rebab player, in which I always attempt to find new, alternative ways of treating a gendhing (garap), so as to avoid repetitive performances.

The texts used for this version of ‘Budheng-Budheng’ are as follows.

Buka celuk – taken from the final part of an andhegan text, performed by one pesindhen which is later joined by the other two at the end of the buka.
First merong – two pesindhen sing in a metrical rhythm an andhegan text (‘Sarpa kresna...’) while the third pesindhen sings another andhegan text (‘Dhuh Kusuma...’).
Second merong – all three pesindhen sing a wangsalan and isen-isen text with different sindhenan melodies.
Inggah – the first gongan uses the text of the macapat Mijil, with a unison gerong part for the pesindhen and wiraswara (male chorus). The second gongan uses kendhang setunggal kosek alus irama wilet, introducing a calm mood, and the sindhenan part uses a wangsalan text.
 The sindhenan andhegan uses the text ‘Weruh maneh...’, which is the regular andhegan used in the classic version of the gendhing.
Ladrang – the form of the ladrang used is a condensed version of the inggah form. In irama wilet, the gerongan sing a salisir text (‘Punapata mirah...’) taken from the beginning of the chronicle of Bharatayuda (around XIII century), dealing with the death of Prabu Salyo.
The next ladrang is performed in ‘semarangan’ style, with a gerongan which I composed myself both as text and music.
The second andhegan uses the text ‘Dhuh sang mangka...’ and the classic andhegan melody is developed in a palaran structure.

The aim of this revision of a well-known classical gendhing was to add variation and character along the lines of the traditional piece and without changing its aesthetic values. The additions were meant to enhance, by gradual building up, the ‘preness’ (coquettish) character throughout the piece, also with the use of three instead of one pesindhen.


Ladrang ‘Kembang Kacang’ laras pelog pathet nem

It is not known when this gendhing was composed, but from the information I was able to obtain, it is thought that ‘Kembang Kacang’ was originally a song which in the 1960s was arranged in a version for Javanese gamelan in the form of a ladrang, and as such was given the present name.
Normally, ladrang ‘Kembang Kacang’ is performed with ciblon irama dados kendhangan pematut, with the sindhenan using texts of wangsalan and salisir. This gendhing contains a sindhenan andhegan gawan gendhing which is not found in any other gendhing. The text for this sindhenan gawan gendhing is as follows:
Kuning kuning Kembang Blimbing
Maya maya
Maya maya
Sing kuning sing duwe sapa
In performance, this andhegan may use andhegan budheng-budheng , but in the final phrase the sindhenan melody ends on seleh 5.

Sukamso and I attempted to present a new version of ladrang ‘Kembang Kacang’, including the use of triple time. R.C. Harjo Soebroto first used this kind of treatment for gendhing ‘Langen Sekar’. Our idea to recreate ladrang ‘Kembang Kacang’ arose while we were teaching a group of veterans, the karawitan group “Koperasi Veteran Indonesia” (KOVERI) from Surakarta, in preparation for their participation in a karawitan competition at RRI Surakarta and RRI Semarang in 1991. At that time, each group had to perform a newly created version of a traditional gendhing and our group won first place in the competition.
We composed the final section – sindhenan and gerongan text and music in triple time – based on and coherently with the mood of the original gendhing.




Texts and translations


Gendhing  BUDHENG-BUDHENG (Trio)  pelog nem


Sindhen 1                Sulistyane anenangi wiragane
                               Wimbuhana mimba memanise
Sindhen 2, 3            Mimba memanise

Merong 1
Sindhen 1, 2            Sarpa kresna puspa rujit
                               Mung handika masku
                               Satuhune ingkang asung daredah ing galih
                               Yekti tanpa sama
Sindhen 3                Dhuh Kusuma tuk ing arum
                               Gandhes luwes saso lahe
                               Liringira karya tratap ing wardaya
                               Kenes wicarane dasar wasis merak ati
Sindhen 1, 2            Sulistyane anenangi
                               Wiragane tangeh ana mimba memanise

Merong 2
Sindhen 3                Kawi sekar sekar pepundhen Sri Kresna
                               Lir puspita warnaning kusumeng pura
                               Kembang nangka nangka rum kang ganda harda
                               Nyebal saking tedhak turune wong sudra
                               Puspa lulut pathining ton wastanira
                               Dipun asih
                               Dipun asih
                               Lila legawa ing driya
Sindhen 2                Arum... wong kuning... arum... wong rangkung... arum... Gusti...
                               Lila legawa ing driya
Sindhen 1                Wideng galeng putri adi ing Madiun
                               Sapa duwe garwa ayu tur tuhu janji
                               Sasolahe jatmika bisa weh rimang

Inggah 1
Sindhen 1, 2, 3        Kang kadulu reroncen melathi
Gerong                    Malela katong ton rina wengi amung dadi impen
                               Pepuntone pantes digoleki
                               Dununge wong manis ingkang maweh wuyung

Inggah 2
Sindhen 3, 2            wangsalan

Andhegan 1
Sindhen 1                Weru maneh yen we ruha
                               Njupuk ala dudu dokokanne
                               He-he i he  he-he ihe
                               Ngalah ena bojone sing wire kuning
                               Rompyoh ala rompyoh rompyoh sesinome
                               He-he i he  he-he ihe
                               Ngembang bakung reremane
                               Ngudhup ala turi gegodhege
                               He-he i he  he-he ihe
                               ‘Kusuma gandane arum’
                               Ngger angger atak arum arum arum

Ladrang 1
Sindhen 2,               Punapata mirah ingsun
Gerong                    Prihatin waspa gung mijil
                               Tuhu dhahat tanpa karya
                               Asengkang rinemekan gusti
                               Gelung rinusak sekarnya
                               Sumawur gambir melathi

Ladrang 2
Sindhen 1                wangsalan

Andhegan 2
Sindhen 3                Dhuh sang mangka tuk ing arum
                               Kang sawang siteng su
                               Ing warnane
                               He-he i he  he-he ihe
                               Tuhu lamun kuma laning estri
                               Gandhes ala luwes luwes
                               He-he i he  he-he ihe
                               Milangoni lelewane
                               Wimbuh aparigel
                               He-he i he  he-he ihe
                               ‘Kusuma gandane arum’
                               Ngger angger atak arum arum arum

Tutti                       Ni mas iki ujude sumbangsih
                               Mlathi kang rinonce daya pigunane
                               Kanggo kalung tansah bisaa anyambung
                               Jroning sarawung sirna rasa bingung


Sindhen 1                Her beauty matches her behaviour
                               Enhancing her good looks
Sindhen 2, 3            Becoming more and more beautiful

Merong 1
Sindhen 1, 2            Black snake with flowers scattered all around
                               you are the only one I adore
                               you turn my heart upside down
                               no one can equal that
Sindhen 3                Oh, my darling girl, so fragrant
                               her movements are all so graceful
                               the look in her eyes makes the heart tremble
                               her coquettish speech captures the heart with such ease
Sindhen 1, 2            Her beauty matches
                               her behaviour, impossible for anyone to equal her beauty
Merong 2
Sindhen 3                The Kawi word for flower, Sri Kresna’s flower with supernatural powers
                               the beauty of the princess from the palace is like a flower
                               the flower of the babal [very young jackfruit]
                               the strong fragrance of the cempedak [another kind of jackfruit]
                               not suitable to be a descendant of the common people
                               a tame flower [tlasih = basil] clearly seen
                               loved, loved
                               pure is her heart
Sindhen 2                Oh, my darling, so tall and beautiful
                               how pure her heart
Sindhen 1                A crab in the rice fields, the beautiful princess from Madiun
                               Who has a beautiful wife and always keeps his promise?
                               So well-mannered, making it easy to fall in love

Inggah 1
Sindhen 1, 2, 3        I see a garland of jasmine flowers
Gerong                    day and night it is my dream
                               finally worth looking for
                               in the place of a pretty girl who makes me insane with love

Inggah 2
Sindhen 3, 2            wangsalan (not translated)

Andhegan 1
Sindhen 1                Especially if he seen
                               unpleasant and out of place
                               He-he i he-he-ihe
                               outdoing his wife who is of pale complexion
                               with thick locks of hair hanging down
                               He-he i he-he ihe
                               her hair resembles the flower of a wild lily
                               shaped at the sides like the flowers of the sesbaniatree
                               He-he i he he-he ihe
                               ‘oh, such a sweet scented maiden’
                               ever so fragrant fragrant fragrant

Ladrang 1
Sindhen 2                What is wrong, the jewel of my heart
Gerong                    so sad, crying so many tears
                               there is really no use
                               the ornaments on her ears have been broken
                               the flowers in her hair spoiled
                               gambir and jasmine scattered all around

Ladrang 2
Sindhen 1                wangsalan

Andhegan 2
Sindhen 3                Oh, sweet goddess, the source of such fragrance
                               who looks at the moon
                               and its light
                               He-he i he he-he ihe
                               truly his wife radiates
                               in her speech
                               He-he i he he-he ihe
                               her manner is so engaging
                               as to make her behaviour
                               more charming
                               He-he i he he-he ihe
                               ‘oh such a sweet scented girl’
                               ever so fragrant fragrant fragrant

Tutti                       My lady, this is proof of love
                               the power of jasmine flowers strung in a necklace
                               always hoping to bring people closer together
                               averting any sense of confusion



Ladrang KEMBANG KACANG  pelog nem


Sindhen 1, 2, 3        Lencir kuning dedegé pakulitané
Gerong                    Mbranyak semu lanyap sembada mrak ati
                               Ngengleng cenganglangan kang abangkit tumingal
                               Sang Dyah Banuwati raja putri Ngastina

Sindhenan pematut
Sindhen 3                Omah gendheng tak saponane ya rama
                               Abot entheng tak lakonane
                               Garwa Salya Kepiting gung ing samodra
                               Ayem tentrem sawangane sun prasetya
                               Gones nenes sun prasetya sumungkem salaminira

Sindhen 2                Pratandhane hambeg sadu
Gerong                    Nedya nggayuh kautaman
                               Mardi ring tyas tan rinasa
                               Rasa rasaning dumadya

Sindhenan pematut
Sindhen 1                Anjang anjang parene welut ya kang mas pejah
                               Gesang kula nggih tumut
                               Sumber wisma Jawata sirah Dipangga
                               Gones nenes wicarane ayu mumur
                               Gones nenes ayu mumur kawulane tan nglenggana

Sindhenan andhegan (gawan gendhing)
Sindhen 3                Kuning kuning Kembang Blimbing
                               Maya maya
                               Maya maya
                               Sing kuning sing duwe sapa

Sindhen 1, 2            Kledhang kledhang anyamping parang
Gerong                    Gelung kondhe cecundhuk kembang
                               Lelewane ne nyata agawe lam lam ing pandulu
                               Kuciwane wong manis tansah ngembang kacang
                               Suntrut suntrut ambesengut
                               Dhuh wong manis esemu ngujiwat

Sindhen 1, 2, 3        Nyamping parang agelung kondhe cundhuk kembang
Gerong                    Lelewane gawe lam kang andulu
                               Kuciwane tansah ngembang kacang
                               Suntrut suntrut ambesengut
                               Dhuh wong manis angujiwat


Sindhen 1, 2, 3        Her figure is tall and slim
Gerong                    with sharp features and an upward gaze, strong and pleasing to the heart
                               madly in love, looking up, then arising to show herself
                               as Sang Dyah Banuwati, daughter of the King of Ngastina

Sindhen Pematut
Sindhen 3                I will sweep your house from top to bottom Father
                               I will do light work and heavy work
                               Salya’s wife [Dewi Setyawati] as the faithful horseshoe crab
                               appearing so calm and peaceful, I swear my loyalty
                               flirtatious and coquettish, I swear to be devoted for ever

Sindhen 2                The signs of an eminent character
Gerong                    always striving to achieve excellence
                               training the heart, not feeling
                               the feelings felt by other living creatures

Sindhenan pematut
Sindhen 1                A bamboo trellis, with vines like eels, oh husband
                               alive or dead, I will follow you
                               the water from the well, Dewata with an elephant head [Bathara Gana]
                               flirtatious, coquettish in her speech, beautiful, shattered
                               flirtatious, coquettish, shattered, the servants are not happy

Sindhenan andhegan (gawan gendhing)
Sindhen 3                Yellow, yellow, the flower of the star fruit
                               its yellow blossom
                               its yellow blossom
                               who does it belong to

Sindhen 1, 2            She goes out wearing a sarong with a parang motif
Gerong                    her hair tied back in a knot and decorated with flowers
                               her style is exquisite
                               but alas, the pretty girl always reminds of the flower of the peanut plant [besengut]
                               frowning, frowning and grumbling
                               oh, pretty one, your smile is so enchanting

Sindhen 1, 2, 3        She wears a sarong with a parang motif
Gerong                    her hair tied in a knot and decorated with flowers
                               her style catches the eyes of all those who see her
                               but alas, she always reminds of the flower of the peanut tree
                               gloomy, gloomy and grumbling, oh pretty, enchanting girl




Gamelan between tradition and innovation
An interview with Rahayu Supanggah


Ravenna, July 2004. A pleasant cool breeze mitigated the usually hot summer of this jewel-case of Byzantine mosaics. How nice that this city should host the only Italian performance of “I La Galigo”, the extraordinary epic theatre work by Robert Wilson.

I could not miss the opportunity to meet again - this time away from his Surakarta home-base - the well-known gamelan master and now assembler/creator of the musics in Wilson’s production. Rahayu Supanggah is probably the most creative of the living Javanese musicians. What makes him a pivotal figure is the fact that his being contemporary is firmly rooted in the mainstream of gamelan tradition, that complex and refined musical world also known as karawitan.

A short biographical sketch. Born in 1949 into a family of dhalang (puppeteers), the young Supanggah was not sure he wanted to be an artist. But it happens that he entered the formal art school, Konservatory Karawitan Indonesia (Surakarta), pursued the musical studies at ASKI (now STSI), and in 1985 completed his PhD in ethnomusicology at the Paris VII University in France. During his studies he was totally involved in the arts. He became involved in various activities of artistic, scholarly, and organizational nature. As a composer, towards the end of the 1960’s, he was noted for his innovative works, somehow gaining for himself the stamp of a rebel artist. Later on, his works were seen as fitting into a natural development of traditional Indonesian music, particularly avoiding the foreign experimentalism coming from the West.
Supanggah’s commitments and achievements have taken him around the world. The multiform aspects of his profession - as composer, performer, ethnomusicologist - have enriched his views and broadened his involvement in the world of music. For us Westerners, both musicologists and simple music lovers, he represents an ideal “bridge” and an interlocutor for our gaining access to the richness of gamelan music.

Following our brief encounter in Ravenna, Bapak Rahayu Supanggah accepted to provide some answers to my questions. Here is the result of the interview.


John Noise Manis -
Can we say that among Javanese musicians you are the one who has been more in contact with Western musical culture?

Bapak Rahayu Supanggah -
I don’t think that I am the one who has been more in contact with Western musical culture. As you know, since the 1950’s, or even before, there have been several Javanese teaching gamelan in various countries such as the US, Australia, England, Holland, etc. I am only one of them. At the same time, many Javanese have also been learning and playing Western music, although unfortunately they have never been abroad, to the West. As a musician of today, it is necessary for me to learn and to work as much as possible with people (artists) of different cultures. I don’t treat differently the cultures of the west, the east, the south, and the north - in the same way as the cultures of the different parts of Indonesia.


Do you feel that karawitan is properly known and appreciated in the West?

Depends on which country we are thinking of. Each country has different relations with Indonesia and Java - politically, emotionally, economically, culturally. People in each country listen, play, and compose gamelan music for different reasons and goals. Their appreciation depends on those elements, and on how long they have been in contact with, and on how deep is their knowledge of gamelan music and gamelan culture.


What are the aspects that can be an obstacle to a wider appreciation of karawitan by Western music lovers?

My knowledge of “westerner” is very limited. I don’t think I have a good answer to the question, but I have the impression that in the West for most of them (composers) music is merely a sound phenomenon, while in Java karawitan is a cultural phenomenon. When we listen to the gamelan, we don’t listen merely to the sound but also to the context and the relation between musicians and the audience. Javanese music in general reflects Javanese mentality. The way of playing an instrument also reflects the character of the musician who is playing. The way of playing of the group is like a dialog among musicians and with the audience.
I would think that Western listeners should know better Javanese culture in order to appreciate more Javanese music.


Your answer in terms of “sound” versus “cultural” phenomena is very clear. But I wonder if, speaking of the Western side, you meant to refer just to “composers” or also to “listeners”. If you think that a Western audience (listeners, not composers) also tends to approach music primarily as “sound”, then perhaps the first step in winning appreciation - for any “foreign” music - is a special attention to the “sound” being offered. In this case, the “culture” side - very important - could hopefully follow at a later stage, as it is factually difficult that it can accompany, in most circumstances, the first meeting with the foreign sounds. What do you think?

This might not answer your question. This is also my problem if I use the term “composer”. I am personally afraid to call myself a composer. I love karawitan and music in general. I listen, I play, and I make music. When I play or make music, it is simply for ourselves - me, other musicians playing, and listeners, whoever. I have never thought whom my music is addressed to. The more people listen to the music, the better and greater honour I get. As you know, the audience in Java can come and leave the concert any time they like. I don’t know yet who will listen to my music. Westerners? There are so many (types of) westerners. I don’t know very well their culture, their attitudes, their tastes, their interests. I cannot make guesses. The most important thing for me, in relation to the foreign audience, is how we can provide good, honest, and comprehensive information, musically as well as culturally. What I aim at is to do my best - for myself, for my musicians, for my society, and if possible for larger audiences. I don’t want my musicians to be suffering in playing my music. As I am also belonging to the traditional karawitan musical society, I don’t want to hurt the feelings of the people, owners and supporters of the music. Especially when I work or deal with music or musicians belonging to another culture or region.


It is understood that the authentic Javanese type of listening to music is profound, inner-centred, and blessed by rasa. Also, there might be the impression that the highest levels of musical perception are attained in ways that pertain to types of “secret knowledge”. If it is so, on what conditions and with what prerequisites can a Western listener come close to the authentic Javanese listening experience?

It is true that rasa is very important, especially for musicians. But its profundity really depends on the individual musician and/or audience, besides of course on the context of performance, including space and time. There are different “concerts”, from the ones for meditation purpose to the ones just for entertainment. As you know, to enjoy karawitan, even for musicians playing at a klenengan, it is not necessary that everybody is too “serious” (in the western sense). We must enjoy ourselves, with or without an audience. Very often musicians play just for themselves. Of course audience could also join, participate in their own ways, talking, eating snacks, drinking, playing cards, etc. while attending the klenengan. At certain moments, audience can react when touched by the music. The sense of rasa is really different in various people; it depends on the preparation of each individual and on circumstances. Most important for an audience in enjoying the karawitan performance might be to catch its impression and the feeling of surrendering oneself to what is going on and to the environment.


What do you think of Martopangrawit’s statement “karawitan is a finished product”?

I could understand the statement of Martopangrawit, as a maestro of traditional karawitan, who loved karawitan so much. Karawitan was his life. The same thing also happened in the world of wayang kulit. I think, however, as the world changes all the time, that karawitan should also change in order to adapt to it. The taste, the needs, the language, the system of values evolve. Karawitan is now listened to and played not only by Javanese; this means that it should also widen its orientation so as to better communicate its values to the broader audience and in the various functions. Karawitan might be more developed, both in its form and in its contents.


New musical creations in Java tend to be classified as either “kréasi baru” (new compositions in the traditional style) or “gamelan kontèmporèr” (compositions using experimental forms and sounds). I don’t know if there are further classifications of contemporary musical production (of course, we exclude the light or pop music area) but how would you consider an activity that could be called “gendhing rékréasi” - that is, a re-creation, a new rendering of a classical gendhing?

I don’t really know what you mean by gendhing rekreasi. I’ve never heard this term before.


You are right. What I have in mind is something that happens - not infrequently - in Western music. Something that recently has been especially analysed and put into perspective by the musicologist Peter Szendy. But examples should clarify best. When Igor Stravinskij made “Pulcinella” using music by Pergolesi and Gallo, that was a great case of music re-creation. From the orchestration of pieces for piano (Ravel from Mussorgskij) to other arrangements (Berio from Mahler and folk music) there seem to be successful opportunities, for a composer, for creating new renderings of existing music, if he is so inclined. An example of potential rekreasi in gamelan music could be the revising of, say, gendhing Kombang Mara: to have a pesindhen duet.instead of a single pesindhen.

In karawitan, I prefer not to use any terminology - neither kreasi, nor rekreasi, nor contemporary. It is up to the audience, musicologists, ethnomusicologists, critics, or whoever. There are no clear boundaries - besides, not necessary. In Java we have the word garap, which can be roughly translated as “treatment”. Since there was no written tradition for karawitan and most traditional music in Nusantara, there is still great liberty to treat the music, depending on the context, occasion, function, goal, and whom I work with or for. But this liberty in treatment requires to act very carefully, with full tanggung jawab (responsibility, accountability) on the various planes - cultural, moral, artistical, and academic (if needed). For “I La Galigo”, for example, I didn’t touch the traditional repertoire - especially some songs and instrumental music that use traditional ensemble. I present that music as it is. The rest is completely my music that I “made” based on the “essence” of the music of Sulawesi - music that I learned, I heard, and I feel. That’s why the orchestration and instrumentation are really weird - rubbish. I don’t know whether you call it rekreasi. I made the new music or I asked them to play as they usually do.


Outside of Java, should karawitan stay solely with the ethnomusicologists, or should it be dealt with also by musicologists?

As gamelan is now used for different purposes, gamelan could stay with both, ethnomusicologists or musicologists. Most important for me, as I already said, is that everyone who deals (especially in a creative way) with gamelan should clarify why, for what purpose, how, where and when he does that. He should be tanggung jawab esthetically, morally, and culturally.


Is it reasonable to think that a Javanese musician could/should observe Western classical music with the eye (ear) of an ethnomusicologist for symmetry’s sake?

I would think so. Principally music is born within and for a certain society in a particular place and time, and in the context of particular needs.





Track 1     Gendhing BUDHENG-BUDHENG  pelog nem                                              33:37
Track 2     Gendhing gender Ladrang SAWUNG GALING  slendro sang                         14:06
Track 3     Ladrang KEMBANG KACANG  pelog nem                                                 12:17


Musicians in Budheng-Budheng and Kembang Kacang
Rebab:  Suraji
Kendhang:  Wakijo
Gender:  Sukamso
Gender Panerus:  Slamet Riyadi
Bonang Barung:  Suyadi
Bonang Panerus:  Sarno
Slenthem:  Sugimin
Demung:  Hadi Boediono
Saron:  Rusdiyantoro
Saron Panerus:  Singgih Sri Cundomanik
Gambang:  Darno
Suling:  Supardi
Siter:  Joko Purwanto
Kenong, Kethuk:  Sigit Setyawah
Gong:  Prasadiyanto
Wiraswara (Gerong):  Darsono, Suyoto, Waluyo
Sindhen I:  Sri Suparsih
Sindhen II:  Rini Rahayu
Sindhen III:  Yayuk Sri Rahayu
A note for the Western lover of classical vocal music, with a bit of fantasy – The three singing roles in Budheng-Budheng could be classified as follows: Sri Suparsi ‘coloratura’,  Rini Rahayu ‘mezzo-soprano’, Yayuk Sri Rahayu ‘soprano lirico’.


Translations: Adi Deswijaya, Janet Purwanto, Rosella Balossino


Musicians in Ldr Sawung Galing
Ibu Pringgo (gender), Bambang Sosrodoro, Hadi Boediono, Joko Santoso, Ketut Saba, Kuwat, Nyoman Sukerna, Rusdiyantoro, Sarno, Slamet Riyadi, Sugimin, Sukamso, Supardi


Musical Design, Mastering, and Photos:  John Noise Manis